The WebSocket protocol is a protocol of the application layer of the OSI model, which enables to communicate in full duplex (a communication canal where the information can circulate simultaneously in both directions) between a client (a browser) and a web server. In two words, it allows to create real-time web applications, like instant messaging chat.

Storing passwords database

Storing passwords securely is a recurring concern.
But what are the main methods, how do they work, and what are they worth against current password cracking techniques?
In this article we explain the main principles of secure storage (hash, salt, pepper, iteration) and highlight their importance for resisting password recovery methods. Finally, we will talk about a reliable hash function for secure storage.

Introduction to Public Key Certificate

A digital certificate is a data file that allow, on the one hand, the non-repudiation and the integrity of data, and on the other hand, to identify and to authenticate a person or an organization and also to encode communications.

A digital certificate includes several information, as:

  •  A public key
  •  Authentication information 
  •  A validity time
  •  An issuer that signs the certificate

This last point is crucial to verify the trustworthiness of a certificate. For this, when a certificate is received, a chain of trust is built to a certificate authority.

To explain the working of the chain of trust, let’s present some notions:

The Metasploit framework is an open source tool, allowing searching, analysing and exploiting vulnerabilities. It has many modules and tools that can be very useful during intrusion tests, whether on Web applications or on a company’s information system.
Although often used relatively basically, for example to launch a simple exploitation module on a target, this framework has options and tools that make it a key ally for a pentest. We will therefore see here how to use the Metasploit framework in an optimized way.

For the demonstration, we will attack a local network we are connected to.

In this previous article, we have seen what a SSRF vulnerability is, and how, in general, it can be exploited. We had placed ourselves in a quite simple theoretical framework, but various elements (either due to the vulnerability itself or due to security implementations) can make the task more complicated.

In this article, we will have a look at various methods to go further. On
the agenda:

  • Various methods for manually bypassing filters;
  • SSRFMap: a semi-automatic operating tool.

Introduction to Burp Suite - Proxy, Scanner, Intruder and Repeater

Burp, by information security professionals, is often said to be our best friend. Burp doesn’t ring a bell? It is a software dedicated to web security audits, used by a majority of information security professionals. First, we will present you the software Burp and four fundamental modules. For those already familiar with the tool, a second more technical article details some functionalities and extensions to gain efficiency.