Abraham Lincoln (repeating a woodsman) would have answered the question: what would you do if you had just six hours to chop down a tree? I would spend the first four hours sharpening my axe.

Knowing its attack surface

What does it tell us? That preparation is key.
You cannot protect what you don’t know, therefore knowing your attack surface is the first essential step to protect it efficiently.

Introduction to Public Key Certificate

A digital certificate is a data file that allow, on the one hand, the non-repudiation and the integrity of data, and on the other hand, to identify and to authenticate a person or an organization and also to encode communications.

A digital certificate includes several information, as:

  •  A public key
  •  Authentication information 
  •  A validity time
  •  An issuer that signs the certificate

This last point is crucial to verify the trustworthiness of a certificate. For this, when a certificate is received, a chain of trust is built to a certificate authority.

To explain the working of the chain of trust, let’s present some notions:

The Metasploit framework is an open source tool, allowing searching, analysing and exploiting vulnerabilities. It has many modules and tools that can be very useful during intrusion tests, whether on Web applications or on a company’s information system.
Although often used relatively basically, for example to launch a simple exploitation module on a target, this framework has options and tools that make it a key ally for a pentest. We will therefore see here how to use the Metasploit framework in an optimized way.

For the demonstration, we will attack a local network we are connected to.

In this previous article, we have seen what a SSRF vulnerability is, and how, in general, it can be exploited. We had placed ourselves in a quite simple theoretical framework, but various elements (either due to the vulnerability itself or due to security implementations) can make the task more complicated.

In this article, we will have a look at various methods to go further. On
the agenda:

  • Various methods for manually bypassing filters;
  • SSRFMap: a semi-automatic operating tool.